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  • 模糊语言在商务信函中的应用

    分类:商务信函 时间:2017-07-26 本文已影响

    篇一:模糊语在商务英语中应用

    模糊语在 商务英语的各种不同的体裁如商务信

    函、商务谈判、商务合同、商务广告中的运用进行了较为全面地分析,了解了 模糊语在 商务英语中的重要性,并可以积极应用于 商务英语教学,引导学生分析和使用 模糊语,帮助学生准确地表达思想。 人们对 模糊语的系统研究由来已久。早在1902年,美国实用主义和符号学的创始人、世界著名哲学家Pierce最先给语言的模糊性下了定义。Pierce指出:“当事物出现几种可能状态时,尽管说话者进行了仔细的思考,实际上仍不能确定,是把这些状态排除出某个命题,还是归属于这个命题。这时候,这个命题就是模糊的。上面说的实际上不能确定,我指的并不是由于解释者的无知而不能确定,而是因为说话者的语言特点就是模糊

    的。”[1][2]此后美国控制论专家L.A.Zadeh在《信息与控制》杂志上发表的《模糊集》文章中提出了系统的模糊理论。1979年我国著名语言学家伍铁平教授在《 模糊语言初探》中首次将模糊理论引入我国的语言学。虽然语言学家们对 模糊语言这一概念众说纷纭,但其中一个关键的解释词语便是“不确定性”,即语言中词语表达的中心意义明确,但词语所指范围边界是不确定的。人类思维是由存在决定的,客观存在的模糊性决定了大脑思维的模糊性。大脑思维的模糊性决定了语言的模糊性。因此正是客观事物本身的模糊性和对客观世界认识的不确定性决定了我们无法避免语言的模

    恰当,更能达到交流的目的。 模糊语在日常交际或文学用语中的运用比较普遍,即便在科技、商务等领域中,诸如 商务英语中, 模糊语的运用也屡见不鲜。 商务英语,作为一种专门用途英语,具有其特殊的语言风格,尽管要求语言表达严谨准确,但是适度地使用 模糊语,不但不会影响 商务英语表达的准确性,还可以使 商务英语表达更灵活、生动、形象、准确,同时显得更严谨、准确、礼貌、得体。它体现在 商务英语的商务信函、商务谈判、商务合同等各种不同的体裁中,发挥其积极的 语用功能。 一、 模糊语在商务谈判中的运用在国际商务谈判中,谈判双方在利益上是对抗性的,但在语言表达上双方都表现得非常友好,因此谈判者总是有所保留,大量运用 模糊语言,从而尽可能多地争取利益。同时运用 模糊语言能起到渲染作用,从心理上战胜对方,从而达到预期的谈判目的。正如邱天河指出:“在国际商务谈判中有时会因某种原因不便或不愿把自己的真实思想暴露给对方,或为试探对方的意向,这时可以通过运用模糊的语言,把输出的信息模糊化,避免过于确定让谈判者进退自如留下必要的回旋余地。”[3]例如:在一次国际商务谈判中,A方向B方询问经营政策及企业信誉的问题时,B方谈判人员出于种种考虑,认为在当时的情形下对这个问题不宜正面回答。为了避免出现不利的形势,不在此问题上与

    B方谈判人员说道:“Well,our business policy is very clear, and our enterprise credit is also known to all.”而当谈到商品质量时,B方谈判人员认为A方的产品质量不怎么样,但又不好意思直说,便讲道:“We know where you are about the quality of your products.”这里运用了“where you are”的 模糊语,从而为双方留了面子,避免了语言上的正面冲突。在谈判中,适当地使用 模糊语,可以使谈话语气趋于缓和,避免将自己的观点和意见强加于人。如:“As far as we know, they are sound enough, but we have no certain knowledge of their true

    fi-nancial position.”这是银行方向公司方提供所涉及的其他公司的信用状况,因为说话人所提供的信息是尽其所知,说话人用 模糊语“As far as we know”进行主观限制,从而减轻应承担的责任。 二、 模糊语在商务信函中的运用商务信函的写作通常要求七个C即com-politeness(完整)、concreteness(具体)、clearness(清楚)、conciseness(简明)、courtesy(礼貌)、considera-tion(体谅)和

    correctness(正确)。但是在特定的商务语境中如主题不明确处理投诉和索赔,劝导对方接受自己的报价,争取更为有利的交易条件,在公司做出重大决策之前或作者正被迫要承担他所不愿承担的责任等,都需要运用 模糊语言,策略性地把信息“模糊化”以便做出富有弹性的回答,从而争取时

    当地使用 模糊语用策略会更有灵活性、外交性和策略性。例如:“Nearly all the models you saw at theSpring Fair are obtainable.”此句中 模糊语“near-ly”的使用使表达不那么肯定,但与实际更接近,又能避免武断,即使出现个别型号无法供货,也可以不必承担责任。因此, 模糊语在商务信函中的运用,可以把一些接近正确但有不能完全正确的话语表达得更具体,与实际情况更相符。又如:“For your information, we have received crowd of inquiries from many other buyers another districts and expect to close business at something near our level.”这是一个卖家婉拒买家讨价还价的策略。卖家不想对买家的讨价还价发表任何意见,也不对自己的开价进行任何的辩护,其仅仅使用了像“many other buyers”及“at something near our level”暗示其不愿在价格上讨价还价。同时在国际 商务英语中一些表达法如”for your information“﹑“for your reference”及“in-formation indicates that”等也带有强烈的模糊色彩,它们尽管没有明确指出消息的确切来源还是非常策略地将自己的意思传达给了对方。 三、 模糊语在商务合同中的运用商务合同英语是随着商品生产的不断发展及贸易往来的日益频繁而形成的一种文体形式,是一种广泛应用于商务合同、契约、协定、协议、保函、招投

    地位的法律文件,因此,商务合同英语既具有 商务英语的特点,同时也具有法律英语的特点,即用词准确、正式、严谨常使用古体词语和成对的同义词及并列的相关词语。虽然准确性是国际商务合同语言的灵魂,但是为了实现特定的 语用功能和意图,需要有条件地、有限制地使用 模糊语言。 模糊语言的使用(除言语过失以外)都是带有动机的。这种动机在合同语境中一般并非是为了增强语言的感染力或是出于礼貌考虑,而是为了使自己处于进退自如的主动地位,使对方承担语用模糊所可能造成后果的部分责任[4]。 模糊语言同样存在于商务合同中,在订立合同时为了更准确地表述合同当事人的权利或义务,最大限度地使条款的规定更加严密,囊括更宽的范围,防止漏洞的产生。例如:“Party A agrees to help Joint Venture to invite and recruit Chinese experts,technicians,workers and other

    personnel and Party B agrees to help Joint Venture to invite and recruit foreign ex-parts.”这里所使用的“other personnel”就是一个模糊词语。在列举了要招聘的主要人员(如专家、技术人员、工人)之后,再加上“other personnel”这样的模糊词语,就使这一条款的规定有了一定的概括性,使表意更加严密,从而更大限度地包含了甲方需招聘的人员。如果把模糊词语省略掉或改用确切词语,这

    篇二:商务函电中模糊语言的语用分析 开题报告

    本科毕业论文(设计)开题报告

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    篇三:商务英语信函中模糊用语的语用分析

    摘 要

    本文首先结合模糊语言的国内外研究实际探讨了它的起源和发展,指出它在语言中不可缺少的地位;然后阐述了商务英语的定义及其特点,并说明了模糊语言在商务英语信函中所起到的积极作用,如使商务英语信函中的商务语言表达的更加灵活,从而加强了礼貌性。适当的运用模糊语言,不仅会更准确的传达商务讯息,而且会拓宽人类想象的空间,让听话人更容易接受所说话语,从而增加其获准的机会;最后对中外商务英语信函中模糊用语的使用情况进行分析比较,并对今后如何更加恰当的使用模糊语言提出建议。

    关键词:模糊用语;商务英语信函;礼貌原则

    ABSTRACT

    This paper first explores the origin and development of vague language combined with the research at home and abroad and points out its indispensible place. It then elaborates the definition and characteristics of Business English and shows the positive role of using vague language in business correspondence. That is, making business expression more flexible, thereby enhancing the courtesy. To be more specific,it not only makes the delivery of business message more accurate but also broadens human?s imagination. As a result, the listener is going to accept the information easily and the permissive chance will be increased. At last, the analysis and comparison of using vague language in business correspondence at home and abroad will be given and the feasible advice will be present.

    Key words:Vague Language; Business Correspondence; Politeness Principle

    Contents

    1.Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Necessity and significance of the study ........................................................................... 1

    1.2 Outline of the thesis ......................................................................................................... 1

    2. Vague language at home and abroad ............................................................................. 3

    2.1 Origin and definition of vague language ......................................................................... 3

    2.2 Clarification of some terms .......................

    模糊语言在商务信函中的应用

    ...................................................................... 6

    2.3 Summary .......................................................................................................................... 8

    3. Definition and characteristics of Business English ....................................................... 9

    3.1 Principles of Business English ........................................................................................ 9

    3.2 Necessity of using vague language in business correspondence ................................... 11

    4. The Effect of vague language in business correspondence ........................................ 13

    4.1 Improving politeness ..................................................................................................... 13

    4.2 Enhancing the expression .............................................................................................. 16

    5. Comparison and analysis of using vague language in business

    correspondence at home and abroad ............................................................................... 18

    6.Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 22 Acknowledgements ............................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。

    References........................................................................................................................... 23

    1.Introduction

    Language is commonly assumed to be clear and precise. Therefore, vagueness and ambiguity are defect to be avoided whenever possible. However, no matter how official the situation is, we cannot avoid using vague language since it exists here and there. Sometimes using vague language appropriately can enhance the communicative effects. Especially in Business English, vague language has been used as a communicative strategy that creates certain pragmatic effects and helps addresser achieve certain communicative intention. The vagueness can promote the business communication and contribute to fulfill the communicative purposes. It is in this sense that the idea shapes up in the author.

    1.1 Necessity and significance of the study

    Since vagueness has been found to rich language using, skillful use of it can take special effects in correspondence. However, the importance of it does not gain enough attention. Most Chinese still focus on grammar and precision of expression. Although many researchers have worked on the study of daily English, literature and language teaching, the study of vague language has seldom been associated with Business English, let alone business correspondence.

    Actually, vagueness in business correspondence is a very potential study. The present study may help readers use it better and more specifically. It may lead readers to have a better understanding of realizing the different intention vague language.

    1.2 Outline of the thesis

    This thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter one presents a general picture of the thesis, telling us the necessity and signification of study. Chapter two reviews the related studies of vague language. The perspective adopted by the

    present research is illustrated, and the researches at home or abroad are talked about. Chapter three introduces the principles and characteristics of Business English and the inevitable relation between vagueness and business correspondence. Chapter four probes into vagueness from the perspective of pragmatics. Take two businesses letters from collected data for example, Chapter five analyses the differences between using vague language in business correspondence at home and abroad. Chapter six is a concluding remark which summarizes the major findings of the present study. At the same time, the limitations are also displayed and some suggestions are provided for further learning and research on vague language.

    相关热词搜索:信函 模糊 语言 商务 商务信函的语言特点 商务信函中的词汇